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Saturday, February 9, 2013

Critical Thinking : Fallacies Analysis

There are contains of fallacies in article SPM EXAM : Better As needed, not more As by P.Nathan, Kuala Lumpur , NST.
The first fallacies found is regarding to the hasty generalization. Based on claim “Many Malaysians are sceptical about the rosy examination results released year after.” on paragraph 2, the conclusion is invalid and weak. This is because the evident is based on a sample that is not large enough.  Making assumptions about a whole group or range of cases based on a small usual resemble weak claim.
Taking on argument “there is a strong belief that the result have been adjusted to make them acceptable to the public” on paragraph 3. There is defect in this argument.  The argument attempts to appeal to pity. This is because the arguer tries to accept conclusion by making them feel sorry for someone. Upon that, the argument also focused more on the emotional fact rather than the evident itself which clearly prove that it is unreliable and weak.
“Critics say it is simply impossible to score 16 1As unless the passing marks we set ridiculously low” was taken on paragraph 4. This claim is to be subjected to contain fallacy on it. It shows that the fallacy is appeal to authority. This is due to that the claim attempts to used “critics” as a reference to support his claim. Supporting a claim by citing an authority who lacks of expertise on that particular issue is obviously prove that it is not be well supported.  
Accordant to conclusion in paragraph 5 “there is even a story circulating of a student who was sent back to Malaysia after having failed an entrance examination” this shows to be appealed to fear. There are elements of fear and prejudice in it. The writer attempts to create support for their conclusion by the existing of emotional contact on it which is fear and prejudice. Therefore, it is to be concluded that the evident is not strong enough to be valid.                                      
More over there is also a personal attack found in paragraph 5 “that particular student was reputed to have scored 16 1As in the SPM examination.”  The argument focuses more attention on personal characteristic rather on the argument. They seek to discredit opinions by discrediting those who the writer attacks to. It is not necessary to use personal characteristic to make one evident valid.
On paragraph 6, the conclusion “our education should come up with a grading system that is progressive, not one that chums out scores of 1As-scoring students who might actually be mediocre” shows to have weak analogy.  This is because conclusion relies on analogy between two or more ideas. The comparison with those two ideas is not relevant, thus making the conclusion weak.
Above is sample of my assignment regarding to fallacies analysis. I don't know whether I got it right or not. My lecturer told me to do as I please, so here is it. Gonna submit it today. and I mean know, at the moment I'm using internet service provided by KFC. Luckily the connection and is pretty nice. 


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